Academic Advisors

We take our role as an education company seriously. That’s why we rely on academic research and collaboration with some of the most knowledgeable on the subject of peer feedback. Our Educational Advisors are educators and thought leaders, chosen to help us continually improve Peergrade and keep our pedagogical standards high.

Inge de Waard 

Senior Strategic Instructional Designer & Researcher at InnoEnergy

Inge de Waard (PhD) has an extensive research background in researching and implementing Innovative Educational Technologies (The Open University, UK, EIT InnoEnergy, EU; Institute of Tropical Medicine – Belgium; Athabasca University – Canada). She set-up, coordinated and developed several online and mobile learning projects, always focusing on participation and durability. These projects involved partners and individuals from both the Northern (Canada, United States, Italy, Belgium, Ireland, Germany, UK) and Southern regions (South-Africa, India, Peru, Morocco).

Follow Inge: BlogTwitterLinkedIn

   Arthur Chiaravalli 

English Language Arts Teacher

Arthur Chiaravalli has taught high school language arts, mathematics, technology, and media arts. His wide range of experiences gives him an uncommon ability to communicate with educators across the disciplinary spectrum. He is very active in the Grade-less movement that focuses on putting feedback and learning in focus. He lives in Michigan with his wife and eight kids.

Follow Arthur: WebsiteTwitter

Starr Sackstein 

NYC High School teacher, Teacher coach, and Author

Starr Sackstein is a Nationally Board Certified English teacher who has made it her mission to transform traditional assessment practices. Between her TedxTalk on her journey to throw out grades and her books on the same topic, Sackstein tries to help teachers all over the world #HackAssessment for better student learning. Oh, and she has written a book about peer feedback!

Follow Starr: BlogTwitterLinkedin

David Nicol

Emeritus Professor, University Strathclyde

David Nicol is currently Emeritus Professor at University of Strathclyde in Student Experience and Enhancement Services. He has written numerous academic papers about peer feedback and lead numerous research projects related to feedback and assessment.

Academic Research

Students who engaged in peer-grading performed better on subsequent tests than did students who did not.

Sanchez et al (2017)

Read Article

Students in the courses using [peer review] outperformed students in similar courses using traditional writing assignments without a peer evaluation element.

Price et al (2016)

Read Article

On the tasks analyzed, peer scores were equivalent to our independent evaluations.

Price et al (2016)

Read Article

List of papers

Self-Grading and Peer-Grading for Formative and Summative Assessments in 3rd Through 12th Grade Classrooms: A Meta-Analysis

This research synthesis examined several questions pertaining to the use of self-grading and peer-grading in conjunction with criterion-referenced testing in 3rd- through 12th-grade-level classrooms. We investigated (a) the effects of students’ participation in grading on subsequent test performance, (b) the difference between grades when assigned by students or teachers, and (c) the correlation between grades assigned by students and teachers.

Students who engaged in self-grading performed better on subsequent tests than did students who did not. Moderator analyses suggested that the benefits of self-grading were estimated to be greater when the study controlled for group differences through random assignment.

Students who engaged in peer-grading performed better on subsequent tests than did students who did not.

On average, students did not grade themselves or peers significantly differently than teachers and showed moderate correlation with teacher grades.

Further, other moderator analyses and examination of studies suggested that self- and peer-grading practices can be implemented to positive effect in primary and secondary schools with the use of rubrics and training for students in a formative assessment environment. However, because of a limited number of studies, these mediating variables need more research to allow more conclusive findings.


Sanchez, Carmen E.; Atkinson, Kayla M.; Koenka, Alison C.; Moshontz, Hannah; Cooper, Harris


Journal of Educational Psychology


16 Mar 2017

Go to article

The assessment cycle: a model for learning through peer assessment

This paper advances a model describing how peer assessment supports self-assessment. The model is applied to different types of peer assessment activities in undergraduate education.

One model is Peer-assisted reflection (PAR) where students (revise before turning in a final solution. (1) work on a problem, (2) self-reflect, (3) analyse a peer’s work and exchange peer feedback and (4) revise before turning in a final solution.

Another model is Calibrated peer review (CPR) where students are (1) writing and submitting an essay, (2) assessing three calibration essays using a rubric and (3) using the same rubric to assign grades to three anonymous peer essays.

Students who engaged with PAR improved success rates by 23%. Student who used CPR got 11% higher problem scores on the final examination.


Daniel Reinholz Center


Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education vol. 42 – issue 2


11 Feb 2016

Go to article

Reciprocal peer assessment as a learning tool for secondary school students in modeling-based learning

This study investigates how reciprocal peer assessment in modeling-based learning can serve as a learning tool for secondary school learners in a physics course.

The participants were 22 upper secondary school students from a gymnasium in Switzerland. They submitted models they developed and anonymously assessed the model of another peer group.

The students were given a four-point rating scale with pre-specified assessment criteria, while enacting the peer-assessor role. After implementation of the peer assessment, students, as peer assessees, were allowed to revise their models. They were also asked to complete a short questionnaire, reflecting on their revisions. Data were collected by (i) peer-feedback reports, (ii) students’ initial and revised models, (iii) post-instructional interviews with students, and (iv) students’ responses to open-ended questions.

The results revealed that, after enactment of the peer assessment, students’ revisions of their models reflected a higher level of attainment toward their model-construction practices and a better conceptual understanding of the subject. The findings of this study suggest that reciprocal peer assessment, in which students experience both the role of assessor and assessee, facilitates students’ learning in science.


Olia E. Tsivitanidou, Costas P. Constantinou, Peter Labudde, Silke Rönnebeck and Mathias Ropohl


European Journal of Psychology of Education


19 September 2017

Go to article